Tag Archives: design

Creating and Measuring Impact in Digital Social and Behavior Change Communication 

By Jana Melpolder

People are accessing the Internet, smartphones, and social media like never before, and the social and behavior change communication community is exploring the use of digital tools and social media for influencing behavior. The MERL Tech session, “Engaging for responsible change in a connected world: Good practices for measuring SBCC impact” was put together by Linda Raftree, Khwezi Magwaza, and Yvonne MacPherson, and it set out to help dive into Digital Social and Behavior Change Communication (SBCC).

Linda is the MERL Tech Organizer, but she also works as an independent consultant. She has worked as an Advisor for Girl Effect on research and digital safeguarding in digital behavior change programs with adolescent girls. She also recently wrote a landscaping paper for iMedia on Digital SBCC. Linda opened the session by sharing lessons from the paper, complemented by learning drawn from research and practice at Girl Effect.

Linda shares good practices from a recent landscape report on digital SBCC.

Digital SBCC is expanding due to smartphone access. In the work with Girl Effect, it was clear that even when girls in lower income communities did not own smartphones they often borrowed them. Project leaders should consider several relevant theories on influencing human behavior, such as social cognitive theory, behavioral economics, and social norm theory. Additionally, an ethical issue in SBCC projects is whether there is transparency about the behavior change efforts an organization is carrying out, and whether people even want their behaviors to be challenged or changed.

When it comes to creating a SBCC project, Linda shared a few tips: 

  • Users are largely unaware of data risks when sharing personal information online
  • We need to understand peoples’ habits. Being in tune with local context is important, as is design for habits, preferences, and interests.
  • Avoid being fooled by vanity metrics. For example, even if something had a lot of clicks, how do you know an action was taken afterwards? 
  • Data can be sensitive to deal with. For some, just looking at information online, such as facts on contraception, can put them at risk. Be sure to be careful of this when developing content.

The session’s second presenter was Khwezi Magwaza who has worked as a writer and radio, digital, and television producer. She worked as a content editor for Praekelt.org and also served as the Content Lead at Girl Effect. Khwezi is currently providing advisory to an International Rescue Committee platform in Tanzania that aims to support improved gender integration in refugee settings. Lessons from Khwezi from working in digital SBCC included:

  • Sex education can be taboo, and community healthcare workers are often people’s first touch point. 
  • There is a difference between social behavior change and, more precisely, individual behavior change. 
  • People and organizations working in SBCC need to think outside the box and learn how to measure it in non-traditional ways. 
  • Just because something is free doesn’t mean people will like it. We need to aim for high quality, modern, engaging content when creating SBCC programs.
  • It’s also critical to hire the right staff. Khwezi suggested building up engineering capacity in house rather than relying entirely on external developers. Having a digital company hand something over to you that you’re stuck with is like inheriting a dinosaur. Organizations need to have a real working relationship with their tech supplier and to make sure the tech can grow and adapt as the program does.
Panelists discuss digital SBCC with participants.

The third panelist from the session was Yvonne MacPherson, the U.S. Director of BBC Media Action, which is the BBC’s international NGO that was made to use communication and media to further development. Yvonne noted that:

  • Donors often want an app, but it’s important to push back on solely digital platforms. 
  • Face-to-face contact and personal connections are vital in programs, and social media should not be the only form of communication within SBCC programs.
  • There is a need to look at social media outreach experiences from various sectors to learn, but that the contexts that INGOs and national NGOs are working in is different from the environments where most people with digital engagement skills have worked, so we need more research and it’s critical to understand local context and behaviors of the populations we want to engage.
  • Challenges are being seen with so-called “dark channels,” (WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger) where many people are moving and where it becomes difficult to track behaviors. Ethical issues with dark channels have also emerged, as there are rich content options on them, but researchers have yet to figure out how to obtain consent to use these channels for research without interrupting the dynamic within channels.

I asked Yvonne if, in her experience and research, she thought Instagram or Facebook influencers (like celebrities) influenced young girls more than local community members could. She said there’s really no one answer for that one. There actually needs to be a detailed ethnographic research or study to understand the local context before making any decisions on design of an SBCC campaign. It’s critical to understand the target group — what ages they are, where do they come from, and other similar questions.

Resources for the Reader

To learn more about digital SBCC check out these resources, or get in touch with each of the speakers on Twitter:

12 ways to ensure your data management implementation doesn’t become a dumpster fire

By Jason Rubin, PCI; Kate Mueller, Dev Results; and Mike Klein, ISG. They lead the session on “One system to rule them all? Balancing organization-wide data standards and project data needs.

Dumpster FireLet’s face it: failed information system implementations are not uncommon in our industry, and as a result, we often have a great deal of skepticism toward new tools and processes.

We addressed this topic head-on during our 2017 MERL Tech session, One system to rule them all?

The session discussed the tension between the need for enterprise data management solutions that can be used across the entire organization and solutions that meet the needs of specific projects. The three of us presented our lessons learned on this topic from our respective roles as M&E advisor, M&E software provider, and program implementer.

We then asked attendees to provide a list of their top do’s and don’ts related to their own experiences – and then reviewed the feedback to identify key themes.

Here’s a rundown on the themes that emerged from participants’ feedback:

Organizational Systems

Think of these as systems broadly—not M&E specific. For example: How do HR practices affect technology adoption? Does your organization have a federated structure that makes standard indicator development difficult? Do you require separate reporting for management and donor partners? These are all organizational systems that need to be properly considered before system selection and implementation. Top takeaways from the group include these insights to help you ensure your implementation goes smoothly:

1. Form Follows Function: This seems like an obvious theme, but since we received so much feedback about folks’ experiences, it bears repeating: define your goals and purpose first, then design a system to meet those, not the other way around. Don’t go looking for a solution that doesn’t address an existing problem. This means that if the ultimate goal for a system is to improve field staff data collection, don’t build a system to improve data visualization.

2. HR & Training: One of the areas our industry seems to struggle with is long-term capacity building and knowledge transfer around new systems. Suggestions in this theme were that training on information systems become embedded in standard HR processes with ongoing knowledge sharing and training of field staff, and putting a priority on hiring staff with adequate skill mixes to make use of information systems.

3. Right-Sized Deployment for Your Organization: There were a number of horror stories around organizations that tried to implement a single system simultaneously across all projects and failed because they bit off more than they could chew, or because the selected tool really didn’t meet a majority of their organization’s projects’ needs. The general consensus here was that small pilots, incremental roll-outs, and other learn-and-iterate approaches are a best practice. As one participant put it: Start small, scale slowly, iterate, and adapt.

M&E Systems

We wanted to get feedback on best and worst practices around M&E system implementations specifically—how tools should be selected, necessary planning or analysis, etc.

4. Get Your M&E Right: Resoundingly, participants stressed that a critical component of implementing an M&E information system is having well-organized M&E, particularly indicators. We received a number of comments about creating standardized indicators first, auditing and reconciling existing indicators, and so on.

5. Diagnose Your Needs: Participants also chorused the need for effective diagnosis of the current state of M&E data and workflows and what the desired end-state is. Feedback in this theme focused on data, process, and tool audits and putting more tool-selection power in M&E experts’ hands rather than upper management or IT.

6. Scope It Out: One of the flaws each of us has seen in our respective roles is having too generalized or vague of a sense of why a given M&E tool is being implemented in the first place. All three of us talked about the need to define the problem and desired end state of an implementation. Participants’ feedback supported this stance. One of the key takeaways from this theme was to define who the M&E is actually for, and what purpose it’s serving: donors? Internal management? Local partner selection/management? Public accountability/marketing?

Technical Specifications

The first two categories are more about the how and why of system selection, roll-out, and implementation. This category is all about working to define and articulate what any type of system needs to be able to do.

7. UX Matters: It seems like a lot of folks have had experience with systems that aren’t particularly user-friendly. We received a lot of feedback about consulting users who actually have to use the system, building the tech around them rather than forcing them to adapt, and avoiding “clunkiness” in tool interfaces. This feels obvious but is, in fact, often hard to do in practice.

8. Keep It Simple, Stupid: This theme echoed the Right-Sized Deployment for Your Organization: take baby steps; keep things simple; prioritize the problems you want to solve; and don’t try to make a single tool solve all of them at once. We might add to this: many organizations have never had a successful information system implementation. Keeping the scope and focus tight at first and getting some wins on those roll-outs will help change internal perception of success and make it easier to implement broader, more elaborate changes long-term.

9. Failing to Plan Is Planning to Fail: The consensus in feedback was that it pays to take more time upfront to identify user/system needs and figure out which are required and which are nice to have. If interoperability with other tools or systems is a requirement, think about it from day one. Work directly with stakeholders at all levels to determine specs and needs; conduct internal readiness assessments to see what the actual needs are; and use this process to identify hierarchies of permissions and security.

Change Management

Last, but not least, there’s how systems will be introduced and rolled out to users. We got the most feedback on this section and there was a lot of overlap with other sections. This seems to be the piece that organizations struggle with the most.

10. Get Buy-in/Identify Champions: Half the feedback we received on change management revolved around this theme. For implementations to be successful, you need both a top-down approach (buy-in from senior leadership) and a bottom-up approach (local champions/early adopters). To help facilitate this buy-in, participants suggested creating incentives (especially for management), giving local practitioners ownership, including programs and operations in the process, and not letting the IT department lead the initiative. The key here is that no matter which group the implementation ultimately benefits the most, having everyone on the same page understanding the implementation goals and why the organization needs it are key.

11. Communicate: Part of how you get buy-in is to communicate early and often. Communicate the rationale behind why tools were selected, what they’re good—and bad—at, what the value and benefits of the tool are, and transparency in the roll-out/what it hopes to achieve/progress towards those goals. Consider things like behavior change campaigns, brown bags, etc.

12. Shared Vision: This is a step beyond communication: merely telling people what’s going on is not enough. There must be a larger vision of what the tool/implementation is trying to achieve and this, particularly, needs to be articulated. How will it benefit each type of user? Shared vision can help overcome people’s natural tendencies to resist change, hold onto “their” data, or cover up failures or inconsistencies.