Tag Archives: responsible

Creating and Measuring Impact in Digital Social and Behavior Change Communication 

By Jana Melpolder

People are accessing the Internet, smartphones, and social media like never before, and the social and behavior change communication community is exploring the use of digital tools and social media for influencing behavior. The MERL Tech session, “Engaging for responsible change in a connected world: Good practices for measuring SBCC impact” was put together by Linda Raftree, Khwezi Magwaza, and Yvonne MacPherson, and it set out to help dive into Digital Social and Behavior Change Communication (SBCC).

Linda is the MERL Tech Organizer, but she also works as an independent consultant. She has worked as an Advisor for Girl Effect on research and digital safeguarding in digital behavior change programs with adolescent girls. She also recently wrote a landscaping paper for iMedia on Digital SBCC. Linda opened the session by sharing lessons from the paper, complemented by learning drawn from research and practice at Girl Effect.

Linda shares good practices from a recent landscape report on digital SBCC.

Digital SBCC is expanding due to smartphone access. In the work with Girl Effect, it was clear that even when girls in lower income communities did not own smartphones they often borrowed them. Project leaders should consider several relevant theories on influencing human behavior, such as social cognitive theory, behavioral economics, and social norm theory. Additionally, an ethical issue in SBCC projects is whether there is transparency about the behavior change efforts an organization is carrying out, and whether people even want their behaviors to be challenged or changed.

When it comes to creating a SBCC project, Linda shared a few tips: 

  • Users are largely unaware of data risks when sharing personal information online
  • We need to understand peoples’ habits. Being in tune with local context is important, as is design for habits, preferences, and interests.
  • Avoid being fooled by vanity metrics. For example, even if something had a lot of clicks, how do you know an action was taken afterwards? 
  • Data can be sensitive to deal with. For some, just looking at information online, such as facts on contraception, can put them at risk. Be sure to be careful of this when developing content.

The session’s second presenter was Khwezi Magwaza who has worked as a writer and radio, digital, and television producer. She worked as a content editor for Praekelt.org and also served as the Content Lead at Girl Effect. Khwezi is currently providing advisory to an International Rescue Committee platform in Tanzania that aims to support improved gender integration in refugee settings. Lessons from Khwezi from working in digital SBCC included:

  • Sex education can be taboo, and community healthcare workers are often people’s first touch point. 
  • There is a difference between social behavior change and, more precisely, individual behavior change. 
  • People and organizations working in SBCC need to think outside the box and learn how to measure it in non-traditional ways. 
  • Just because something is free doesn’t mean people will like it. We need to aim for high quality, modern, engaging content when creating SBCC programs.
  • It’s also critical to hire the right staff. Khwezi suggested building up engineering capacity in house rather than relying entirely on external developers. Having a digital company hand something over to you that you’re stuck with is like inheriting a dinosaur. Organizations need to have a real working relationship with their tech supplier and to make sure the tech can grow and adapt as the program does.
Panelists discuss digital SBCC with participants.

The third panelist from the session was Yvonne MacPherson, the U.S. Director of BBC Media Action, which is the BBC’s international NGO that was made to use communication and media to further development. Yvonne noted that:

  • Donors often want an app, but it’s important to push back on solely digital platforms. 
  • Face-to-face contact and personal connections are vital in programs, and social media should not be the only form of communication within SBCC programs.
  • There is a need to look at social media outreach experiences from various sectors to learn, but that the contexts that INGOs and national NGOs are working in is different from the environments where most people with digital engagement skills have worked, so we need more research and it’s critical to understand local context and behaviors of the populations we want to engage.
  • Challenges are being seen with so-called “dark channels,” (WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger) where many people are moving and where it becomes difficult to track behaviors. Ethical issues with dark channels have also emerged, as there are rich content options on them, but researchers have yet to figure out how to obtain consent to use these channels for research without interrupting the dynamic within channels.

I asked Yvonne if, in her experience and research, she thought Instagram or Facebook influencers (like celebrities) influenced young girls more than local community members could. She said there’s really no one answer for that one. There actually needs to be a detailed ethnographic research or study to understand the local context before making any decisions on design of an SBCC campaign. It’s critical to understand the target group — what ages they are, where do they come from, and other similar questions.

Resources for the Reader

To learn more about digital SBCC check out these resources, or get in touch with each of the speakers on Twitter:

Being data driven… can it be more than a utopia?

by Emily Tomkys Valteri, the ICT in Program Accountability Project Manager at Oxfam GB. In her role, Emily drives Oxfam’s thinking on the use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) for accountability and supports staff with applications of ICTs within their work. 

Every day the human race generates enough data to fill 10 million blu-ray discs and if you stacked them up it would be four times the height of the Eiffel tower. Although the data we process at Oxfam is tiny in comparison, sometimes the journey towards being “data driven” feels like following the yellow brick road to The Emerald City. It seems like a grand ideal, but for anyone who knows the film, inflated expectations are set to be dashed. Does data actually help organisations like Oxfam better understand the needs of communities affected by disaster or poverty? Or do we need to pull back the curtain and manage our expectations about getting the basics right? When there are no ruby slippers, we need to understand what it is we can do with data and improve the way data is managed and analysed across countries and projects.

The problem

Oxfam works in over 90 countries using a variety of different data management and analysis tools that are developed or purchased in country. In the past, we have experimented with software licenses and database expertise, but we have started aiming for a more joined up approach. It’s our belief that good systems which build in privacy by design can help us stay true to values in our rights based Responsible Program Data Policy and Information Systems Data Security guidelines – which are about treating those people whom data is about with dignity and respect.

One of our most intractable challenges is that Oxfam’s data is analysed in system silos. Data is usually collected and viewed through a project level lens. Different formats and data standards make it difficult to compare across countries, regions or even globally. When data remains in source systems, trying to analyse between different systems is long and manual, meaning that any meta analysis is rarely done. One of the key tenants of Responsible Data is to only collect data you can use and to make the most of that information to effectively meet people’s needs. Oxfam collects a lot of valuable data and we think we need to do more with it: analyse more efficiently, effectively, at national and beyond level to drive our decision making in our programmes.

The solution

In response, Oxfam has begun creating the DataHub: a system which integrates programme data into a standard set of databases and presents it to a reporting layer for analysis. It bakes in principles of privacy and compliance with new data protection laws by design. Working with our in-house agile software development team we conducted four tech sprints, each lasting two weeks. Now we have the foundations. One of our standard data collection tools, SurveyCTO, is being pushed via a webhook into our unstructured database, Azure Cosmos DB. Within this database, the data is organised into collections, currently set up by country. From here, the data can be queried using Power BI and presented to programme teams for analysis. Although we only have one source system into quantitative analysis for now, the bigger picture will have lots of source systems and a variety of analysis options available.

To get to where we are today, Oxfam’s ICT in Programme team worked closely with the Information Systems teams to develop a solution that was in line with strategy and future trends. Despite the technology being new to Oxfam, the solution is relatively simple and we ensured good process, interoperability and that tools available to us were fit for purpose. This collaborative approach gave us the organisational support to prioritise these activities as well as the resources required to carry them out.

This journey wasn’t without its challenges, some of which are still being worked on. The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) coming into force in May 2018, and Oxfam has had to design the DataHub with this in mind. At this stage, data is anonymised during integration and so no Personally Identifiable Information (PII) enters the DataHub due to a series of configurations and processes we have put in place. Training and capacity is another challenge, we need to encourage a culture of valuing the data. This will only be of benefit to teams and the organisation if they make use of the system, investing time and resources to learning it.

We are excited about the potential of the DataHub and the success we have already had in setting up the infrastructure to enable more efficient data analysis and more responsive programming as well as save resources. We are keen to work with and share ideas with others. We know there is a lot of work ahead to foster a data driven organisation but we’re starting to feel, with the right balance of technology, process and culture it’s more realistic than we might have first hoped.