Tag Archives: COVID

Use of Administrative Data for the COVID-19 Response

Administrative data is that which is collected as part of regular activities that occur during program implementation. It has not been tapped sufficiently for learning and research. As the COVID-19 pandemic advances, how might administrative data be used to help with the COVID response, and other national or global pandemics.

At the final event in the MERL Tech and CLEAR-Anglophone Africa series for  gLOCAL Evaluation Week, we were joined by Kwabena Boakye, Ministry of Monitoring and Evaluation, Ghana; Bosco Okumu, National Treasury and Planning, Kenya; Stephen Taylor, Department of Basic Education, South Africa; and Andrea Fletcher, Cooper-Smith.

The four panelists described the kinds of administrative or “routine” data they are using in their work. For example, in Kenya educational records, client information from financial institutions, hospital records of patients, and health outcomes are being used to plan and implement actions related to COVID-19 and to evaluate the impact of different COVID-related policies that governments have put in place or are considering. In Malawi, administrative data is combined with other sources such as Google mobility data to understand how migration might be affecting the virus’ spread. COVID-19 is putting a spotlight on weaknesses and gaps in existing administrative data systems.

Watch the video here:

Listen to just the audio from the event here:

Summary:

Benefits of administrative data include that:

  • Data is generated through normal operations and does not require an additional survey to create it
  • It can be more relevant than a survey because it covers a large swath of the entire population
  • It is an existing data source during COVID when it’s difficult to collect new data
  • It can be used to create dashboards for decision-makers at various levels

Challenges include:

  • Data sits in silos and the systems are not designed to be interoperable
  • Administrative data may leave out those who are not participating in a government program
  • Data sets are time-bound to the life of the program
  • Some administrative data systems are outdated and have poor quality data that is not useful for decision-making or analysis
  • There is a demand for beautiful dashboards and maps but there is insufficient attention to the underlying data processes that would be needed to produce this information so that it can be used
  • Real-time data is not possible when there is no Internet connectivity
  • There is insufficient attention to data privacy and protection, especially for sensitive data
  • Institutions may resist providing data if weakness are highlighted through the data or they think it will make them look bad

Recommendations for better use of administrative data in the public sector:

  • Understand the data needs of decision-makers and build capacity to understand and use data systems
  • Map the data that exists, assess its quality, and identify gaps
  • Design and enact policies and institutional arrangements, tools, and processes to make sure that data is organized and interoperable.
  • Automate processes with digital tools to make them more seamless.
  • Focus on enhancing underlying data collection processes to improve the quality of administrative data; this includes making it useful for those who provide the data so that it is not yet another administrative burden with no local value.
  • Assign accountability for data quality across the entire system.
  • Learn from the private sector, but remember that the public sector has different incentives and goals.
  • Rather than fund more research on administrative data, donors should put funds into training on data quality, data visualization, and other skills related to data use and data literacy at different levels of government.
  • Determine how to improve data quality and use of existing administrative data systems rather than building new ones.
  • Make administrative data useful to those who are inputting it to improve data quality.

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See other gLOCAL Evaluation 2020 events from CLEAR-AA and MERL Tech:

Remote Monitoring in the Time of Coronavirus

On June 3,  MERL Tech and CLEAR-Anglophone Africa hosted the second of three virtual events for gLOCAL Evaluation Week. At this event, we heard from Ignacio Del Busto, IDInsight, Janna Rous, Humanitarian Data, and Ayanda Mtanyana, New Leaders, on the topic of remote monitoring.

Data is not always available, and it can be costly to produce. One challenge is generating data cheaply and quickly to meet the needs of decision-makers within the operational constraints that enumerators face. Another is ensuring that the process is high quality and also human-centered, so that we are not simply extracting data. This can be a challenge when there is low connectivity and reach, poor networks capacity and access, and low smartphone access. Enumerator training is also difficult when it must be done remotely, especially if enumerators are new to technology and more accustomed to doing paper-based surveys.

Watch the video below.

Listen to just the audio from the session here.

Some recommendations arising from the session included:

  • Learn and experiment as you try new things. For example, tracking when and why people are dropping off a survey and finding ways to improve the design and approach. This might be related to the time of the call or length of the survey.
  • It’s not only about phone surveys. There are other tools. For example, WhatsApp has been used successfully during COVID-19 for collecting health data.
  • Don’t just put your paper processes onto a digital device. Instead, consider how to take greater advantage of digital devices and tools to find better ways of monitoring. For example, could we incorporate sensors into the monitoring from the start? At the same time, be careful not to introduce technologies that are overly complex.
  • Think about exclusion and access. Who are we excluding when we move to remote monitoring? Children? Women? Elderly people? We might be introducing bias if we are going remote. We also cannot observe if vulnerable people are in a safe place to talk if we are doing remote monitoring. So, we might be exposing people to harm or they could be slipping through the cracks. Also, people self-select for phone surveys. Who is not answering the phone and thus left out of the survey?
  • Consider providing airtime but make sure this doesn’t create perverse incentives.
  • Ethics and doing no harm are key principles. If we are forced to deliver programs remotely, this involves experimentation. And we are experimenting with people’s lives during a health crisis. Consider including a complaints channel where people can report any issues.
  • Ensure data is providing value at the local level, and help teams see what the whole data process is and how their data feeds into it. That will help improve data quality and reduce the tendency to ‘tick the box’ for data collection or find workarounds.
  • Design systems for interoperability so that the data can overlap, and the data can be integrated with other data for better insights or can be automatically updated. Data standards need to be established so that different systems can capture data in the same way or the same format;
  • Create a well-designed change management program to bring people on board and support them. Role modeling by leaders can help to promote new behaviors.

Further questions to explore:

  • How can we design monitoring to be remote from the very start? What new gaps could we fill and what kinds of mixed methods could we use?
  • What two-way platforms are most useful and how can they be used effectively and ethically?
  • Can we create a simple overview of opportunities and threats of remote monitoring?
  • How can we collect qualitative data, e.g., focus groups and in-depth interviews?
  • How can we keep respondents safe? What are the repercussions of asking sensitive questions?
  • How can we create data continuity plans during the pandemic?


Download the event reports:

See other gLOCAL Evaluation 2020 events from CLEAR-AA and MERL Tech:

Using Data Responsibly During the COVID-19 Crisis

Over the past decade, monitoring, evaluation, research and learning (MERL) practices have become increasingly digitalized. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused that the process of digitalization to happen with even greater speed and urgency, due to travel restrictions, quarantine, and social distancing orders from governments who are desperate to slow the spread of the virus and lessen its impact.

MERL Tech and CLEAR-Anglophone Africa are working together to develop a framework and guidance on responsible data management for MERL in the Anglophone African context. As part of this effort, we held three virtual events in early June during CLEAR’s gLOCAL Evaluation Week.

At our June 2 event, Korstiaan Wapenaar, Genesis Analytics, Jerusha Govender, Data Innovator, and Teki Akkueteh, Africa Digital Rights Hub, shared tips on how to be more responsible with data.

Data is a necessary and critical part of COVID-19 prevention and response efforts to understand where the virus might appear next, who is most at risk, and where resources should be directed for prevention and response. However we need to be sure that we are not putting people at risk of privacy violations or misuse of personal data and to ensure that we are managing that data responsibly so that we don’t unnecessarily create fear or panic.

Watch the video below:

Listen to the audio from the session here:

Session summary:

  • MERL Practitioners have clear responsibilities when sharing, presenting, consuming and interpreting data. Individuals and institutions may use data to gain prestige, and this can allow bias to creep in or to justify government decisions. Data quality is critical for informing decisions, and information gaps create the risk of misinformation and flawed understanding. We need to embrace uncertainty and the limitations of the science, provide context and definitions so that our sources are clear, and ensure transparency around the numbers and the assumptions that are underpin our work.
  • MERL Practitioners should provide contextual information and guidance on how to interpret the data so that people can make sense of it in the right way. We should avoid cherry picking data to prove a point, and we should be aware that data visualization carries power to sway opinions and decisions. It can also influence behavior change in individuals, so we need to take responsibility for that. We also need to find ways to visualize data for lay people and non-technical sectors.
  • Critical data is needed, yet it might be used in negative or harmful ways, for example, COVID-related stigmatization that can affect human dignity. We must not override ethical and legal principles in our rush to collect data. Transparency around data collection processes and use are also needed, as well as data minimization. Some might be taking advantage of the situation to amass large amounts of data for alternative purposes, which is unethical. Large amounts of data also bring increased risk of data breaches. When people are scared, such as in COVID times, they will be willing to hand over data. We need to ensure that we are providing oversight and keeping watch over government entities, health facilities, and third-party data processors to ensure data is protected and not misused.
  • MERL Practitioners are seeking more guidance and support on: aspects of consent and confidentiality; bias and interference in data collection by governments and community leaders; overcollection of data leading to fatigue; misuse of sensitive data such as location data; potential for re-identification of individuals; data integrity issues; lack of encryption; and some capacity issues.
  • Good practices and recommendations include ethical clearance of data and data assurance structures; rigorous methods to reduce bias; third party audits of data and data protection processes; localization and contextualization of data processes and interpretation; and “do no harm” framing.

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Read about the other gLOCAL Evaluation 2020 events from CLEAR-AA and MERL Tech:

8 Ways to Adapt Your M&E During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Guest post from Janna Rous. Original published here.

So, all of a sudden you’re stuck at home because of the new coronavirus.  You’re looking at your M&E commitments and your program commitments.  Do you put them all on hold and postpone them until the coronavirus threat has passed and everything goes back to normal?  Or is there a way to still get things done”!?  This article reviews 8 ways you can adapt your M&E during the pandemic.

Here are a few ideas that you and your team might consider doing to make sure you can stay on track (and maybe even IMPROVE your MEAL practices) even if you might currently be in the middle of a lockdown, or if you think you might be going into a lockdown soon:

1. Phone Call Interviews instead of In-Person Interviews

Do you have any household assessments or baseline surveys or post-distribution monitoring that you had planned in the next 1 to 3 months? Is there a way that you can carry out these interviews by phone or WhatsApp calls?  This is the easiest and most direct way to carry on with your current M&E plan.  Instead of doing these interviews face-to-face, just get them on a call.  I’ve created a checklist to help you prepare for doing phone call interviews – click here to get the “Humanitarian’s Phone Call Interview Checklist”.  Here are a few things you need to think through to transition to a phone-call methodology:

  • You need phone numbers and names of people that need to be surveyed. Do you have these?  Or is there a community leader who might be able to help you get these?
  • You also need to expect that a LOT of people may not answer their phone. So instead of “sampling” people for a survey, you might want to just plan on calling almost everyone on that list.
  • Just like for a face-to-face interview, you need to know what you’re going to say. So you need to have a script ready for how you introduce yourself and ask for consent to do a phone questionnaire.  It’s best to have a structured interview questionnaire that you follow for every phone call, just like you would in a face-to-face assessment.
  • You also need to have a way to enter data as you ask the questions. This usually depends on what you’re most comfortable with – but I recommend preparing an ODK or KoboToolbox questionnaire, just like you would for an in-person survey, and filling it out as you do the interview over the phone.  I find it easiest to enter the data into KoboToolbox “Webform” instead of the mobile app, because I can type information faster into my laptop rather than thumb-type it into a mobile device.  But use what you have!
  • If you’re not comfortable in KoboToolbox, you could also prepare an Excel sheet for directly entering answers – but this will probably require a lot more data cleaning later on.
  • When you’re interviewing, it’s usually faster to type down the answers in the language you’re interviewing in. If you need your final data collection to be in English, go back and do the translation after you’ve hung up the phone.
  • If you want a record of the interview, ask if you can record the phone call. When the person says yes, then just record it so you can go back and double check an answer if you need to.
  • Very practically – if you’re doing lots of phone calls in a day, it is easier on your arm and your neck if you use a headset instead of holding your phone to your ear all day!

2. Collect Videos & Photos Directly from Households and Communities

When you’re doing any in-person MEAL activities, you’re always able to observe evidence. You can look around and SEE impact, you don’t just hear it through an interview or group discussion.  But when you’re doing M&E remotely, you can’t double-check to see what impact really looks like.  So I recommend:

  • Connect with as many beneficiaries and team members as possible through WhatsApp or another communication app and collect photos and videos of evidence directly from them.
  • Video – Maybe someone has a story of impact they can share with you through video. Or if you’re overseeing a Primary Health Care clinic, perhaps you can have a staff member walk you through the clinic with a video so you can do a remote assessment.
  • Pictures – Maybe you can ask everyone to send you a picture of (for example) their “hand washing station with soap and water” (if you’re monitoring a WASH program). Or perhaps you want evidence that the local water point is functioning.

3. Programme Final Evaluation

It’s a good practice to do a final evaluation review when you reach the end of a program.  If you have a program finishing in the next 1-3 months, and you want to do a final review to assess lessons learned overall, then you can also do this remotely!

  • Make a list of all the stakeholders that would be great to talk to: staff members, a few beneficiaries, government authorities (local and/or national), other NGOs, coordination groups, partner organizations, local community leaders.
  • Then go in search of either their phone numbers, their email addresses, their Skype accounts, or their WhatsApp numbers and get in touch.
  • It’s best if you can get on a video chat with as many of them as possible – because it’s much more personal and easy to communicate if you can see one another’s faces! But if you can just talk with audio – that’s okay too.
  • Prepare a semi-structured interview, a list of questions you want to talk through about the impact, what went well, what could have gone better. And if there’s anything interesting that comes up, don’t worry about coming up with some new questions on the spot or skipping questions that don’t make sense in the context.
  • You can also gather together any monitoring reports/analysis that was done on the project throughout its implementation period, plus pictures of the interventions.
  • Use all this information to create a final “lessons learned” evaluation document. This is a fantastic way to continually improve the way you do humanitarian programming.

4. Adapt Your Focus Group Discussion Plan

If everyone is at home because your country has imposed a lockdown, it will be very difficult to do a focus group discussion because….you can’t be in groups!  So, with your team decide if it might be better to switch your monitoring activity from collecting qualitative data in group discussions to actually just having one-on-one interviews on the phone with several people to collect the same information.

  • There are some dynamics that you will miss in one-to-one interviews, information that may only come out during group discussions. (Especially where you’re collecting sensitive or “taboo” data.) Identify what that type of information might be – and either skip those types of questions for now, or brainstorm how else you could collect the information through phone-calls.

5. Adapt Your Key Informant Interviews

If you normally carry out Key Informant Interviews, it would be a great idea to think what “extra” questions you need to ask this month in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic.

  • If you normally ask questions around your program sector areas, think about just collecting a few extra data points about feelings, needs, fears, and challenges that are a reality in light of Covid-19. Are people facing any additional pressures due to the epidemic? Or are there any new humanitarian needs right now? Are there any upcoming needs that people are anticipating?
  • It goes without saying that if your Key Informant Interviews are normally in person, you’ll want to carry these out by phone for the foreseeable future!

6. What To Do About Third Party Monitoring

Some programs and donors use Third Party Monitors to assess their program results independently.  If you normally hire third party monitors, and you’ve got some third party monitoring planned for the next 1-3 months, you need to get on the phone with this team and make a new plan. Here are a few things you might want to think through with your third party monitors:

  • Can the third party carry out their monitoring by phone, in the same ways I’ve outlined above?
  • But also think through – is it worth it to get a third party monitor to assess results remotely? Is it better to postpone their monitoring?  Or is it worth it to carry on regardless?
  • What is the budget implication? If cars won’t be used, is there any cost-savings?  Is there any additional budget they’ll need for air-time costs for their phones?
  • Make sure there is a plan to gather as much photo and video evidence as possible (see point 2 above!)
  • If they’re carrying out phone call interviews it would also be a good recommendation to record phone calls if possible and with consent, so you have the records if needed.

7. Manage Expectations – The Coronavirus Pandemic May Impact Your Program Results.

You probably didn’t predict that a global pandemic would occur in the middle of your project cycle and throw your entire plan off.  Go easy on yourself and your team!  It is most likely that the results you’d planned for might not end up being achieved this year.  Your donors know this (because they’re probably also on lockdown).  You can’t control the pandemic, but you can control your response.  So proactively manage your own expectations, your manager’s expectations and your donor’s expectations.

  • Get on a Skype or Zoom call with the project managers and review each indicator of your M&E plan. In light of the pandemic, what indicator targets will most likely change?
  • Look through the baseline numbers in your M&E plan – is it possible that the results at the END of your project might be worse than even your baseline numbers? For example, if you have a livelihoods project, it is possible that income and livelihoods will be drastically reduced by a country-wide lockdown.  Or are you running an education program?  If schools have been closed, then will a comparison to the baseline be possible?
  • Once you’ve done a review of your M&E plan, create a very simple revised plan that can be talked through with your program donor.

8. Talk To Your Donors About What You Can Do Remotely

When you’re on the phone with your donors, don’t only talk about revised program indicators.

  • Also talk about a revised timeframe – is there any flexibility on the program timeframe, or deadlines for interim reporting on indicators? What are their expectations?
  • Also talk about what you CAN do remotely. Discuss with them the plan you have for carrying on everything possible that can be done remotely.
  • And don’t forget to discuss financial implications of changes to timeframe.