Tag Archives: every1mobile

Can digital tools be used to help young mothers in Kenya form new habits?

Guest post from Haanim Galvaan, Content Designer at Every1Mobile

A phone is no longer just a phone. It’s your connection to the rest of the world, it’s your personal assistant, and now, it’s your best friend who gives you encouragement and reinforcement for your good habits.

At least that’s what mobile phones have become for those who make use of habit-boosting apps.

If you’re trying to quit smoking and want to build a streak of puff-free days, the HabitBull app can help you do that. Want to establish a habit in your team that makes use of social accountability? Try Habitica. Do you want positive reinforcement for your activities in a motivational, rewarding voice? Productive is the app for that.

But what if you’re a young mum, living in the urban slums of Nairobi and you want to improve the health and wellbeing of your children? Try U Afya’s 10-Day Challenge.

U Afya is an online community for young mothers and mothers-to-be to learn about topics related to health, hygiene and family life. The site takes a holistic approach to giving young mothers the knowledge and confidence they need to enact certain healthy behaviours. It’s a place to discuss, give and receive advice, take free online courses, and now, to establish good habits with a custom-built habit tracking tool.

The 10-Day Handwashing Challenge was launched using new habit-tracking functionality. Users were encouraged to perform an activity related to handwashing each day, e.g. wash your hands with soap for 20 seconds. The challenges were formulated around the Lifebuoy “5 Key Moments” model. Participants were required to log their activity on the site by completing a survey.

Each day the site fed users a different hygiene-related tip, as well as links to additional content. At the end of the challenge, users were pushed to take a pledge and make a commitment to handwashing.

U Afya’s Habit Tracker is different from other habit boosting apps in that it is not an app! It has been built onto a low-data usage site that has been optimised for the data-sensitive target audience in the Nairobi slums. The tracker provides a rich, visual experience, which makes use of simple functionality compatible on both feature phone and smartphone.

We created a sense of urgency.

Users were required to log their activity for 10 days within a 30-day period. Attaching a “deadline” added a measure of urgency to the activity. There is no space for procrastination. The message is: establish your habit now or you never will!

It is based on behaviour change levers.

The 10-Day Handwashing Challenge and its accompanying content around the site were all based on the behaviour change approach employed by Lifebuoy in Way of Life, namely Awareness, Commitment, Reinforcement and Reward.

The approach was executed in the following ways:

Awareness: Introducing the handwashing theme with engaging, educational content that linked to and from the 10-Day Handwashing Challenge:

  • Diseases caused by lack of handwashing (article)
  • 5 Tips for washing your hands correctly (article)
  • Global Handwashing Day! – The 5 Key times to wash our hands (article)
  • How much do you know about handwashing? (quiz)

Commitment: Encouraging users to take the Handwashing Pledge

Reinforcement: Habit tracker, come back to self-report your daily activity

Reward: Participants stood the chance to win a hygiene gift bag

Contents of the hygiene gift bag given to 5 winners.

The results

86 users started the challenge and 26 users completed it within the 30-day challenge period. That makes a completion rate of 30% overall. Considering that users had to return to the challenge 10 times, the response rate is quite high.

The biggest drop-off happened between Day 1 and Day 2, with 28 users falling away and drop-off rates decreased gradually throughout the 10 days. The graph below shows that most users who made it to day 5 ended up completing the challenge. Only 11 users dropped off between Day 5 and Day 10.

26 out of 86 users created a habit.

In addition to participatory data, additional feedback was gathered by interspersing survey questions into the challenge. This additional questioning determined that 91% of challenge-takers feel they can afford to buy soap for their families.

Feedback:

Users had overwhelmingly positive feedback about the challenge.

“It was so educating and hygienically I have improved. It’s now a routine to me, washing hands in any case”

Learnings:

Keep it simple

It’s not always necessary to create a fancy app to push a new activity. The U Afya 10-Day Challenge was built on a platform that users are already familiar with. By building it into their current environment, it offered them something new and exciting on their visit.

Users were required to do one thing each day and report it with one action i.e. taking a single-question survey. Requiring minimal effort from your users can maximise uptake.

Overall the approach was simplicity. Simplicity in the design of the functionality, simplicity in the daily action and simplicity in creating a habit.

With this approach the U Afya 10-Day Handwashing Challenge helped 26 young mothers to create a new habit of washing their hands every day at key moments.

Conclusion:

This first iteration of U Afya’s 10-Day Handwashing Challenge was a pilot, but the results suggest that it is possible to use low-cost, low-tech means to encourage habit formation. It is also possible for sophisticated behaviour change theory and practice to reach some of the most vulnerable groups, using the very phones they have in their hands.

It is also a useful tool to help us to understand the impact of our behaviour change campaigns in the real world.

Next steps

All the user feedback and learnings mentioned above will be analysed to understand how the approach can be strengthened to reach even more people, increase compliance and and encourage positive habit creation.

Using WhatsApp to improve family health

Guest post from ​Yolandi Janse van Rensburg, Head of Content & Communities at Every1Mobile. This post first appeared here.

I recently gave a talk at the MERL Tech 2018 conference in Johannesburg about the effectiveness of Whatsapp as a communication channel to reach low-income communities in the urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya and understand their health behaviours and needs.

Mobile Economy Report 2018. Communicating more effectively with a larger audience in hard-to-reach areas has never been easier. Instead of relying on paper questionnaires or instructing field workers to knock on doors, you can now communicate directly with your users, no matter where you are in the world.

With this in mind, some may choose to create a Whatsapp group, send a batch of questions and wait for quality insights to stream in, but in reality, they receive little to no participation from their users.

Why, you ask? Whatsapp can be a useful tool to engage your users, but there are a few lessons we’ve learnt along the way to encourage high levels of participation and generate important insights.

Building trust comes first

Establishing a relationship with the communities you’re targeting can easily be overlooked. Between project deadlines, coordination and insight gathering, it can be easy to neglect forging a connection with our users, offering a window into our thinking, so they can learn more about who we are and what we’re trying to achieve. This is the first step in building trust and acquiring your users’ buy-in to your programme. This lies at the core of Every1Mobile’s programming. The relationship you build with your users can unlock honest feedback that is crucial to the success of your programme going forward.

In late 2017, Every1Mobile ran a 6-week Whatsapp pilot with young mothers and mothers-to-be in Kibera and Kawangware, Nairobi, to better understand their hygiene and nutrition practices in terms of handwashing and preparing a healthy breakfast for their families. The U Afya pilot kicked off with a series of on-the-ground breakfast clubs, where we invited community members to join. It was an opportunity for the mothers to meet us, as well as one another, which made them feel more comfortable to participate in the Whatsapp groups.

Having our users meet beforehand and become acquainted with our local project team ensured that they felt confident enough to share honest feedback, talk amongst themselves and enjoy the Whatsapp chats. As a result, 60% of our users attended every Whatsapp session and 84% attended more than half of the sessions.

Design content using SBCC

At Every1Mobile, we do not simply create engaging copy, our content design is based on research into user behaviour, analytics and feedback, tailored with a human-centric approach to inspire creative content strategies and solutions that nurture an understanding of our users.

When we talk about content design, we mean taking a user need and presenting it in the best way possible. Applying content design principles means we do the hard work for the user. And the reward is communication that is simpler, clearer and faster for our communities

For the U Afya pilot, we incorporated Unilever, our partner’s, behaviour change approach, namely the Five Levers for Change, to influence attitudes and behaviours, and improve family health and nutrition. The approach aims to create sustainable habits using social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) techniques like signposting, pledging, prompts and cues, and peer support. Each week covered a different topic including pregnancy, a balanced diet, an affordable and healthy breakfast, breastfeeding, hygiene and weaning for infants.

Localisation means more than translating words

Low adult literacy in emerging markets can have a negative impact on the outcomes of your behaviour change campaigns. In Kenya, roughly  38.5% of the adult population is illiterate with bottom-of-the-pyramid communities having little formal education. This means translating your content into a local language may not be enough.

To address this challenge for the U Afya pilot, our Content Designers worked closely with our in-country Community Managers to localise the Whatsapp scripts so they are applicable to the daily lives of our users. We translated our Whatsapp scripts into Sheng, even though English and Kiswahili are the official languages in Kenya. Sheng is a local slang blend of English, Kiswahili and ethnic words from other cultures. It is widely spoken by the urban communities with over 3,900 words, idioms and phrases. It’s a language that changes and evolves constantly, which means we needed a translator who has street knowledge of urban life in Nairobi.

Beyond translating our scripts, we integrated real-life references applicable to our target audience. We worked with our project team to find out what the daily lives of the young mothers in Kibera and Kawangware looked like. What products are affordable and accessible? Do they have running water? What do they cook for their families and what time is supper served? Answers to these questions had a direct impact on our use of emojis, recipes and advice in our scripts. For example, we integrated local foods into the content like uji and mandazi for breakfast and indigenous vegetables including ndengu, ngwashi and nduma.

Can WhatsApp can drive behaviour change?

The answer is ‘yes’, mobile has the potential to drive SBCC. We observed an interesting link between shifts in attitude and engagement, with increased self-reported assimilation of new behaviour from women who actively posted during the Whatsapp sessions.

To measure the impact of our pilot on user knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, we designed interactive pre- and post-surveys, which triggered airtime incentives once completed. Surprisingly, the results showed little impact in knowledge with pre-scores registering higher than anticipated, however, we saw a notable decrease in perceived barriers of adopting these new behaviours and a positive impact on self-efficacy and confidence.

WhatsApp can inform the programme design

Your audience can become collaborators and help you design your programme. We used our insights gathered through the U Afya Whatsapp pilot to create a brand new online community platform that offers young mothers in Nairobi a series of online courses called Tunza Class.

We built the community platform based on the three key life stages identified within the motherhood journey, namely pregnancy and birth, newborn care, and mothers with children under five. The platform includes an interactive space called Sistaz Corner where users can share their views, experiences and advice with other mothers in their community.

With a range of SBCC techniques built into the platform, users can get peer support anonymously, and engage field experts on key health issues. Our Responsible Social Network functionality allows users to make friends, build their profile and show off their community activity which further drives overall user engagement on the site. The Every1Mobile platform is built in a way that enables users to access the online community using the most basic web-enabled feature phone, at the lowest cost for our end user, with fast loading and minimal data usage.

Following the site launch in early August 2018, we are now continuing to use our Whatsapp groups so we can gather real-time feedback on site navigation, design, functionality, labelling and content, in order to apply iterative design and ensure the mobile platform is exactly what our users want it to be.