Tag Archives: root change

Visualizing Your Network for Adaptive Program Decision Making

By Alexis Banks, Jennifer Himmelstein, and Rachel Dickinson

Social network analysis (SNA) is a powerful tool for understanding the systems of organizations and institutions in which your development work is embedded. It can be used to create interventions that are responsive to local needs and to measure systems change over time. But, what does SNA really look like in practice? In what ways could it be used to improve your work? Those are the questions we tackled in our recent MERL Tech session, Visualizing Your Network for Adaptive Program Decision Making. ACDI/VOCA and Root Change teamed up to introduce SNA, highlight examples from our work, and share some basic questions to help you get started with this approach.

MERL Tech 2019 participants working together to apply SNA to a program.

SNA is the process of mapping and measuring relationships and information flows between people, groups, organizations, and more. Using key SNA metrics enables us to answer important questions about the systems where we work. Common SNA metrics include (learn more here):

  • Reachability, which helps us determine if one actor, perhaps a local NGO, can access another actor, such as a local government;
  • Distance, which is used to determine how many steps, or relationships, there are separating two actors;
  • Degree centrality, which is used to understand the role that a single actor, such as an international NGO, plays in a system by looking at the number of connections with that organization;
  • Betweenness, which enables us to identify brokers or “bridges” within networks by identifying actors that lie on the shortest path between others; and
  • Change Over Time, which allows us to see how organizations and relationships within a system have evolved.
Using betweenness to address bottlenecks.

SNA in the Program Cycle

SNA can be used throughout the design, implementation, and evaluation phases of the program cycle.

Design: Teams at Root Change and ACDI/VOCA use SNA in the design phase of a program to identify initial partners and develop an early understanding of a system–how organizations do or do not work together, what barriers are preventing collaboration, and what strategies can be used to strengthen the system.

As part of the USAID Local Works program, Root Change worked with the USAID mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) to launch a participatory network map that identified over 1,000 organizations working in community development in BiH, many of which had been previously unknown to the mission. It also provided the foundation for a dialogue with system actors about the challenges facing BiH civil society.

To inform project design, ACDI/VOCA’s Feed the Future Tanzania NAFAKA II Activity, funded by USAID conducted a network analysis to understand the networks associated with village based agricultural advisors (VBAAs)–what services they were offering to farmers already, which had the most linkages to rural actors, which actors were service as bottlenecks, and more. This helped the project identify which VBBA’s to work with through small grants and technical assistance (e.g. key actors), and what additional linkages needed to be built between VBAAs and other types of actors.

NAFAKA II Tanzania

Implementation: We also use SNA throughout program implementation to monitor system growth, increase collaboration, and inform learning and program design adaptation. ACDI/VOCA’s USAID/Honduras Transforming Market Systems Activity uses network analysis as a tool to track business relationships created through primary partners. For example, one such primary partner is the Honduran chamber of tourism who facilitates business relationships through group training workshops and other types of technical assistance. They can then follow up on these new relationships to gather data on indirect outcomes (e.g. jobs created, sales and more).

Root Change used SNA throughout implementation of the USAID funded Strengthening Advocacy and Civic Engagement (SACE) program in Nigeria. Over five years, more than 1,300 organizations and 2,000 relationships across 17 advocacy issue areas were identified and tracked. Nigerian organizations came together every six months to update the map and use it to form meaningful partnerships, coordinate advocacy strategies, and hold the government accountable.

SACE participants explore a hand drawn network map.

Evaluating Impact: Finally, our organizations use SNA to measure results at the mid-term or end of project implementation. In Kenya, Root Change developed the capacity of Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) staff to carry out a baseline, and later an end-of-project network analysis of the relationships between youth and organizations providing employment, education, and entrepreneurship support. The latter analysis enabled AKF to evaluate growth in the network and the extent to which gaps identified in the baseline had been addressed.

AKF’s Youth Opportunities Map in Kenya

The Feed The Future Ghana Agricultural Development and Value Chain Enhancement II (ADVACNE II) Project, implemented by ACDI/VOCA and funded by USAID, leveraged existing database data to demonstrate the outgrower business networks that were established as a result of the project. This was an important way of demonstrating one of ADVANCE II’s major outcomes–creating a network of private service providers that serve as resources for inputs, financing, and training, as well as hubs for aggregating crops for sales.

Approaches to SNA
There are a plethora of tools to help you incorporate SNA in your work. These range from bespoke software custom built for each organization, to free, open source applications.

Root Change uses Pando, a web-based, participatory tool that uses relationship surveys to generate real-time network maps that use basic SNA metrics. ACDI/VOCA, on the other hand, uses unique identifiers for individuals and organizations in its routine monitoring and evaluation processes to track relational information for these actors (e.g. cascaded trainings, financing given, farmers’ sales to a buyer, etc.) and an in-house SNA tool.

Applying SNA to Your Work
What do you think? We hope we’ve piqued your interest! Using the examples above, take some time to consider ways that SNA could be embedded into your work at the design, implementation, or evaluation stage of your work using this worksheet. If you get stuck, feel free to reach out (Alexis Banks, abanks@rootchange.org; Rachel Dickinson, rdickinson@rootchange.org; Jennifer Himmelstein, JHimmelstein@acdivoca.org)!

Using Social Network Analysis and Feedback to Measure Systems Change

by Alexis Smart, Senior Technical Officer, and Alexis Banks, Technical Officer, at Root Change

As part of their session at MERL Tech DC 2018, Root Change launched Pando, an online platform that makes it possible to visualize, learn from, and engage with the systems where you work. Pando harnesses the power of network maps and feedback surveys to help organizations strengthen systems and improve their impact.

Decades of experience in the field of international development has taught our team that trust and relationships are at the heart of social change. Our research shows that achieving and sustaining development outcomes depends on the contributions of multiple actors embedded in thick webs of social relationships and interactions. However, traditional MERL approaches have failed to help us understand the complex dynamics within those relationships. Pando was created to enable organizations to measure trust, relationships, and accountability between development actors.

Relationship Management & Network Maps

Grounded in social network analysis, Pando uses web-based relationship surveys to identify diverse organizations within a system and track relationships in real time. The platform automatically-generates a network map that visualizes the organizations and relationships within asystem. Data filters and analysis tools help uncover key actors, areas ofcollaboration, and network structures and dynamics.

Feedback Surveys & Analysis

Pando is integrated with Keystone Accountability’s Feedback Commons, an online tool that gives map administrators the ability to collect and analyze feedback about levels of trust and relationship quality among map participants. The combined power of network maps and feedback surveys helps create a holistic understanding of the system of organizations that impact a social issue, facilitate dialogue, and track change over time as actors work together to strengthen the system.

Examples of Systems Analysis

During Root Change’s session, “Measuring Complexity: A Real-Time Systems Analysis Tool,”Root Change Co-Founder, Evan Bloom and Senior Technical Officer, Alexis Smart, highlighted four examples of using network analysis to create social change from our work:

  • Evaluating Local Humanitarian ResponseSystems: We worked with the Harvard Humanitarian Institute (HHI) to evaluate the effect of local capacity development efforts on local ownership within humanitarian response networks in the Philippines, Kenya, Myanmar, and Ethiopia. Using social network analysis, Root Change and HHI assessed the roles of local and international organizations within each network to determine thedegree to which each system was locally-led.
  • Supporting Collective Impact in Nigeria: Network mapping has also been used in the USAID funded Strengthening Advocacy and Civic Engagement (SACE) project in Nigeria. Over five years, more than 1,300 organizationsand 2,000 relationships across 17 advocacy issue areas were identified andtracked. Nigerian organizations used the map to form meaningful partnerships,set common agendas, coordinate strategies, and hold the government accountable.
  • Informing Project Design in Kenya – Root Change and the Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) collected relationship data from hundreds of youth and organizations supporting youth opportunities in coastal Kenya. Analysis revealed gaps in expertise within the system, and opportunities to improve relationships among organizations and youth. These insights helped inform AKF’s program design, and ongoing mapping will be used to monitor system change. 
  • Tracking Local Ownership: This year, under USAID Local Works, Root Change is working with USAID missions to measure local ownership of development initiatives using newly designed localization metrics on Pando. USAID Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) launched a national Local Works map, identifying over 1,000 organizations working together on community development. Root Change and USAID BiH are exploring a pilot to use this map to continue to collect data and track localization metrics and train a local organization to support with this process.
     

Join the MERL Tech DC Network Map

As part of the MERL Tech DC 2018 conference, Root Change launched a map of the MERL Tech community. Event participants were invited to join this collaborative mapping effort to identify and visualize the relationships between organizations working to design, fund, and implement technology that supports monitoring, evaluation, research, and learning (MERL) efforts in development.

It’s not too late to join! Email info@mypando.org for an invitation to join the MERL Tech DC map and a chance to explore Pando.

Learn more about Pando

Pando is the culmination of more than a decade of experience providing training and coaching on the use of social network analysis and feedback surveys to design, monitor, and evaluate systems change initiatives. Initial feedback from international and local NGOs, governments, community-based organizations, and more is promising. But don’t take our word for it. We want to hear from you about ways that Pando could be useful in your social impact work. Contact us to discuss ways Pando could be applied in your programs.